Leaders of Afghanistan
(Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan)
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Parties and organizations: EM: Etelaf-e Milli/National Coalition of Afghanistan - HAN: Hezb-e Afghanistan Naween/New Afghanistan Party - HDKA: Hezb-e Democratik-e Khalq-e Afghanistan/People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (Communist, divided into two factions: Khalq ("Masses") and Parcham ("Banner") - HIA: Hezb-e Islami Afghanistan/Islamic Party of Afghanistan - HII: Harakat-e Inqelab-e Islami/Islamic Revolutionary Movement - HIK: Hezb-e Islami-Khalis/Islamic Party-Khalis faction.HIM: Hezb-e Inqelab-e Milli/National Revolutionary Party - HW: Hezb-e Watan/Fatherland Party (formerly, HDKA) HWIA: Hezb-e Wahdat-e Islami Afghanistan/Party of the Islamic Unity of Afghanistan - IIBAA: Ittehad-e Islami Barai Azadi Afghanistan/Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan - JIA: Jamiat-e Islami Afghanistan/Islamic Association of Afghanistan - JMI: Jumbesh-e Milli Islami Afghanistan/National Islamic Movement of Afghanistan - JNMA: Jabha-e Nejat-e Milli Afghanistan/National Liberation Front of Afghanistan - MMIA: Mahaz-e Milli-e Islami Afghanistan/National Islamic Front of Afghanistan - TDIA: Islamic Dawah Organization of Afghanistan - UINFSA: United Islamic and National Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan - RSA: Rawand-e Sabz-e Afghanistan/Afghanistan Green Trend

Political milestones: Kingdom of Afghanistan (9 Jun 1926) / Republic of Afghanistan (17 Jul 1973) / Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (30 Apr 1978) / Republic of Afghanistan (30 Nov 1987) / Islamic State of Afghanistan (28 Apr 1992) / Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (26 Oct 1997) / Islamic State of Afghanistan (13 Nov 2001) / Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (19 Jun 2002) / Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (26 Jan 2004) / Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (19 Aug/7 Sep 2021)

Look for biographies of the leaders (in Spanish) at CIDOB website.


Heads of State
King
Mohammad Zahir Shah         8 Nov 1933 - 17 Jul 1973 (†2007)  

President of the Republic
Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan  17 Jul 1973 - 27 Apr 1978 (†1978) n/p, HIM  

Revolutionary Council of the Armed Forces
Abdul Qadir (chairman)     27 Apr 1978 - 30 Apr 1978 (†2014) military 

Presidents of the Republic/Chairmen of the Revolutionary Council
Nur Mohammad Taraki        30 Apr 1978 - 16 Sep 1979 (†1979) HDKA-Khalq
Hafizullah Amin            16 Sep 1979 - 27 Dec 1979 (†1979) HDKA-Khalq
Babrak Karmal              27 Dec 1979 - 20 Nov 1986 (†1996) DKA-Parcham, HDKA
Mohammad Chamkani          20 Nov 1986 - 30 Sep 1987 (†2012) HDKA
Mohammad Najibullah        30 Sep 1987 - 30 Nov 1987 (†1996) HDKA

Presidents of the Republic
Mohammad Najibullah        30 Nov 1987 - 16 Apr 1992 (†1996) HDKA, HW
Abdul Rahim Hatef          16 Apr 1992 - 28 Apr 1992 (†2013) HW (acting) 

Chairman of the Jihad Council 
Sibghatullah Mojaddedi     28 Apr 1992 - 28 Jun 1992 (†2019) JNMA (interim) 

President of the Islamic State
Burhanuddin Rabbani        28 Jun 1992 - 26 Sep 1996 (†2011) JIA (1)

Heads of the Supreme Council 
Mohammad Rabbani           27 Sep 1996 - 16 Apr 2001 (†2001) Taliban (2)    
Abdul Kabir                16 Apr 2001 - 13 Nov 2021         Taliban (acting) (2)

President of the Islamic State 
Burhanuddin Rabbani        17 Nov 2001 - 22 Dec 2001 (†2011) JIA/UINFSA (1)

Chairman of the Interim Administration
Hamid Karzai               22 Dec 2001 - 19 Jun 2002         n/p

Head of State for the Transitional Administration
Hamid Karzai               19 Jun 2002 -  7 Dec 2004         n/p

Presidents of the Islamic Republic
Hamid Karzai                7 Dec 2004 - 29 Sep 2014         n/p
Ashraf Ghani               29 Sep 2014 - 15 Aug 2021         n/p (3)
 Abdullah Abdullah          9 Mar 2020 - 17 May 2020         EM (self-proclaimed, in opposition to Ashraf Ghani)
 Amrullah Saleh            17 Aug 2021 -  6 Sep 2021         RSA (self-proclaimed, in rebellion against the Taliban regime) (3)

Head of Interim Government
Mohammad Hassan Akhund      7 Sep 2021 -                     Taliban (acting) (4)

(1) After conquest of Kabul by the Taliban on 26 Sep 1996, the Government of president Burhanuddin Rabbani, a leader of the Northern Alliance and head of the Jamiat-e-Islami faction, controlled a reduced northern territory in rebellion and retained diplomatic recognition from a majority of countries, as well as the UN seat. On 13 Nov 2001 the UINFSA, or Northern Alliance, reconquered Kabul, the Taliban fled southward and Rabbani returned to the capital on 17 Nov, claiming to be the provisional president and pending the formation of a post-taliban, broad-based and multiethnic Government. That executive was inaugurated on 22 Dec 2001.

(2) The paramount ruler of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, proclaimed on 26 Oct 1997, was the spiritual and political leader of the Taliban movement, Mullah Mohammad Omar Akhund, self-styled Amir ul-Momenin (Commander of the Faithful) since 4 Apr 1996. The Supreme Council or Shura was first established in Kandahar in 1994 by ten Taliban mullah and chaired by Mullah Mohammad Rabbani. Following the conquest of Kabul in 1996, a local shura was established, performing the functions of a provisional Government. Nevertheless, the power scheme of the Taliban regime remained unclear. No head of State or Government was designated when Mullah Rabbani passed away on 16 Apr 2001, but Mawlawi Abdul Kabir headed the Supreme Council in acting capacity. The Taliban were driven out from Kabul by the Northern Alliance on 13 Nov 2001.

(3) President Ghani fled Afghanistan on 15 Aug 2021 when the Taliban conquered Kabul. Vice President Amrullah Saleh proclaimed himself acting president of the Islamic Republic from Panjshir, the only province not captured by the Taliban at the moment. On 6 Sep The Panjshir resistance was defeated and Saleh fled Afghanistan.

(4) Interim Prime Minister acting also as head of State. The Paramount ruler of the second Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (declared on 19 Aug 2021 and officially proclaimed on 7 Sep 2021; Kabul conquered on 15 Aug 2021) is the third Emir of the movement, Mawlawi Hibatullah Akhundzada.


General Secretaries of HDKA and HW (Communist rule, 1978-1992)
Nur Mohammad Taraki           30 Apr 1978 – 16 Sep 1979 (†1979)
Hafizullah Amin               16 Sep 1979 - 27 Dec 1979 (†1979)
Babrak Karmal                 27 Dec 1979 -  4 May 1986 (†1996)  
Mohammad Najibullah            4 May 1986 - 16 Apr 1992 (†1996) 

Supreme leaders (Amir al-Mu'minin, 'Commander of the Faithful') of the Taliban
Mullah Mohammad Omar Akhund       Sep 1996 - 23 Apr 2013 (†2013)
Mullah Akhtar Mohammad Mansour 29 Jul 2015 – 21 May 2016 (†2016)
Mullah Hibatullah Akhundzada   25 May 2016 -

Heads of Government
Prime Ministers
Sardar Mohammad Hashim Khan   14 Nov 1929 -    May 1946 (†1953) n/p
Sardar Shah Mahmud Khan          May 1946 -  7 Sep 1953 (†1959)  
Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan      7 Sep 1953 - 10 Mar 1963 (†1978) n/p
Mohammad Yusuf Khan           10 Mar 1963 -  2 Nov 1965 (†1998) n/p
Mohammad Hashim Maiwandwal     2 Nov 1965 - 11 Oct 1967 (†1973) n/p
Abdullah Yaqta                11 Oct 1967 -  1 Nov 1967 (†2003) n/p (interim)    
Mohammad Nur Ahmad Etemadi     1 Nov 1967 -  9 Jun 1971 (†1979) n/p
Sharifi Abdul Zahir            9 Jun 1971 - 12 Dec 1972 (†1982) n/p
Mohammad Musa Shafiq          12 Dec 1972 - 17 Jul 1973 (†1979) n/p
Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan     17 Jul 1973 - 27 Apr 1978 (†1978) n/p, HIM
Nur Mohammad Taraki            1 May 1978 - 27 Mar 1979 (†1979) HDKA-Khalq
Hafizullah Amin               27 Mar 1979 - 27 Dec 1979 (†19799 HDKA-Khalq
Babrak Karmal                 27 Dec 1979 - 11 Jun 1981 (†1996) HDKA-Parcham
Sultan Ali Keshtmand          11 Jun 1981 - 26 May 1988         HDKA
Mohammad Hasan Sharq          26 May 1988 - 21 Feb 1989         HDKA
Sultan Ali Keshtmand          21 Feb 1989 -  8 May 1990         HDKA 
Fazal Haq Khaliqyar            8 May 1990 - 15 Apr 1992 (†2004) HW
Abdul Sabur Farid Kuhestani    6 Jul 1992 - 15 Aug 1992 (†2007) HIA
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar           17 Jun 1993 - 28 Jun 1994         HIA
Arsala Rahmani Daulat            Nov 1994 -        1995 (†2012) (acting)
Ahmad Shah Ahmadzai                  1995 - 26 Jun 1996 (†2021) TDIA (acting)
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar           26 Jun 1996 - 11 Aug 1997         HIA (in rebellion from 26 Sep 1996)
Abdul Rahim Ghafoorzai        11 Aug 1997 - 21 Aug 1997 (†1997) UINFSA (in rebellion)
Mohammad Ali Jawid            21 Aug 1997 - 30 Sep 1997         UINFSA (acting, in rebelion)       

Head of the Supreme Council 
Mohammad Rabbani              27 Sep 1996 - 16 Apr 2001 (†2001) Taliban    

Chief Executive
Abdullah Abdullah            29 Sep 2014 -  9 Mar 2020         EM

Prime Minister
Mohammad Hassan Akhund        7 Sep 2021 -                      Taliban (interim)

Vice Presidents
Abdul Qadir                   19 Jun 2002 -  6 Jul 2002 (†2002) HIK (transitional)
Hedayat Amin Arsala           19 Jun 2002 -  7 Dec 2004         MMIA (transitional)
Mohammad Fahim                19 Jun 2002 -  7 Dec 2004 (†2014) JIA (transitional)
Nematullah Shahrani           19 Jun 2002 -  7 Dec 2004         n/p (transitional)
Mohammad Karim Khalili        19 Jun 2002 -  7 Dec 2004         HWIA (transitional)
Ahmad Zia Massoud (1st)        7 Dec 2004 - 19 Nov 2009         JIA
Mohammad Karim Khalili (2nd)   7 Dec 2004 - 29 Sep 2014         HWIA
Mohammad Fahim (1st)          19 Nov 2009 -  9 Mar 2014 (†2014) JIA
Yunus Qanuni (1st)            31 Mar 2014 - 29 Sep 2014         HAN (interim)
Abdul Rashid Dostum (1st)     29 Sep 2014 - 19 Feb 2020         JMI
Sarwar Danish (2nd)           29 Sep 2014 - 15 Aug 2021         HWIA
Amrullah Saleh (1st)          19 Feb 2020 - 15 Aug 2021         RSA

Commanders of the International Security Asssistance Force (ISAF, 2001-2014)
John Chalmers McColl          10 Jan 2002 - 20 Jun 2002         United Kingdom (ISAF I, British command)
Akin Zorlu                    20 Jun 2002 - 10 Feb 2003         Turkey (ISAF II, Turkish command)
Norbert van Heyst             10 Feb 2003 - 11 Aug 2003         Germany (ISAF III, German-Dutch command)
Gφtz Gliemeroth               11 Aug 2003 -  9 Feb 2004         Germany (ISAF IV, NATO command)
Rick J. Hillier                9 Feb 2004 -  9 Aug 2004         Canada (ISAF V, NATO command) 
Jean-Louis Py                  9 Aug 2004 - 13 Feb 2005         France (ISAF VI, Eurocorps command)   
Ethem Erdagi                  13 Feb 2005 -  5 Aug 2005         Turkey (ISAF VII, NATO command) 
Mauro Del Vecchio              5 Aug 2005 -  4 May 2006         Italy (ISAF VIII, NATO command) 
David J. Richards              4 May 2006 -  4 Feb 2007         United Kingdom (ISAF IX, NATO command)       
Dan K. McNeill                 4 Feb 2007 -  3 Jun 2008         United States (ISAF X and XI, NATO command)
David D. McKiernan             3 Jun 2008 - 15 Jun 2009         United States (NATO command)
Stanley A. McChrystal         15 Jun 2009 - 23 Jun 2010         United States (NATO command)
David H. Petraeus             23 Jun 2010 - 18 Jul 2011         United States (NATO command)
John R. Allen                 18 Jul 2011 - 10 Feb 2013         United States (NATO command)
Joseph F. Dunford             10 Feb 2013 - 26 Aug 2014         United States (NATO command)
John F. Campbell              26 Aug 2014 - 31 Dec 2014         United States (NATO command)

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